8-K
--12-31 false 0001587221 0001587221 2021-06-17 2021-06-17

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM 8-K

 

 

CURRENT REPORT

Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

Date of Report (Date of earliest event reported): June 17, 2021

 

 

ZOSANO PHARMA CORPORATION

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

Delaware   001-36570   45-4488360

(State or other jurisdiction

of incorporation)

 

(Commission

File Number)

 

(IRS Employer

Identification Number)

34790 Ardentech Court

Fremont, CA 94555

(Address of principal executive offices, including Zip Code)

(510) 745-1200

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Not applicable

(Former name or former address, if changed since last report)

 

 

Check the appropriate box below if the Form 8-K filing is intended to simultaneously satisfy the filing obligation of the registrant under any of the following provisions:

 

Written communications pursuant to Rule 425 under the Securities Act (17 CFR 230.425)

 

Soliciting material pursuant to Rule 14a-12 under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.14a-12)

 

Pre-commencement communications pursuant to Rule 14d-2(b) under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.14d-2(b))

 

Pre-commencement communications pursuant to Rule 13e-4(c) under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.13e-4(c))

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act:

 

Title of each class

 

Trading

Symbol

 

Name of each exchange

on which registered

Common Stock, $0.0001 par value   ZSAN   The Nasdaq Stock Market

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is an emerging growth company as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933 (§230.405 of this chapter) or Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (§240.12b-2 of this chapter).

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

 

 

 


Item 5.03

Amendments to Articles of Incorporation or Bylaws; Change in Fiscal Year.

On and effective as of June 17, 2021, the Board of Directors (the “Board”) of Zosano Pharma Corporation (the “Company”) approved the amendment and restatement of the Bylaws of the Company (the “Amended and Restated Bylaws”) to reduce the quorum required for meetings of stockholders from a majority to one-third (1/3) of the outstanding shares of stock entitled to vote, present in person, by remote communication or by proxy, and further to provide that where a separate vote by a class or classes or series is required, except where otherwise provided by statute or by the Certificate of Incorporation or the Bylaws, one-third (1/3) of the outstanding shares of such class or classes or series entitled to vote, present in person, by remote communication or by proxy shall constitute a quorum entitled to take action with respect to that vote on that matter.

The foregoing description of the Amended and Restated Bylaws is qualified in its entirety by reference to the full text of the Amended and Restated Bylaws filed as Exhibit 3.1 to this Current Report on Form 8-K and incorporated by reference herein.

 

Item 7.01

Regulation FD Disclosure.

As previously disclosed in the Company’s current report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on June 10, 2021, on June 10, 2021, the Company convened and adjourned the 2021 Annual Meeting of Stockholders of the Company (the “Annual Meeting”) without any business being conducted, due to lack of the requisite quorum. The Annual Meeting has been adjourned to 8:30 a.m. Pacific Time on Wednesday, June 30, 2021. The adjourned meeting will be held virtually at www.virtualshareholdermeeting.com/ZSAN2021. The record date has not changed. Only stockholders of record at the close of business on April 15, 2021 are entitled to vote at the Annual Meeting.

In order to facilitate the timely transaction of business at the Annual Meeting, the Board approved the Amended and Restated Bylaws to reduce the required quorum for meetings of stockholders from a majority to one-third (1/3) of the outstanding shares of stock entitled to vote, present in person, by remote communication or by proxy.

 

Item 9.01

Financial Statements and Exhibits.

(d) Exhibits.

 

Exhibit No.     

Exhibit Description

  3.1      Amended and Restated Bylaws of Zosano Pharma Corporation (effective as of June 17, 2021)
  104.1      Cover Page Interactive Data File (embedded within the Inline XBRL document)


SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned hereunto duly authorized.

 

Date: June 21, 2021       ZOSANO PHARMA CORPORATION
      By:  

/s/ Christine Matthews

 
      Name: Christine Matthews
      Title:   Chief Financial Officer
EX-3.1

Exhibit 3.1

AMENDED AND RESTATED

BYLAWS

OF

ZOSANO PHARMA CORPORATION

(A DELAWARE CORPORATION)

(Adopted June 17, 2021)


AMENDED AND RESTATED

BYLAWS

OF

ZOSANO PHARMA CORPORATION

(A DELAWARE CORPORATION)

ARTICLE I

OFFICES

Section 1. Registered Office. The registered office of the corporation in the State of Delaware shall be in the City of Wilmington, County of New Castle.

Section 2. Other Offices. The corporation shall also have and maintain an office or principal place of business at such place as may be fixed by the Board of Directors, and may also have offices at such other places, both within and without the State of Delaware as the Board of Directors may from time to time determine or the business of the corporation may require.

ARTICLE II

CORPORATE SEAL

Section 3. Corporate Seal. The Board of Directors may adopt a corporate seal. The corporate seal shall consist of a die bearing the name of the corporation and the inscription, “Corporate Seal-Delaware.” Said seal may be used by causing it or a facsimile thereof to be impressed or affixed or reproduced or otherwise. Said seal may be altered at the pleasure of the Board of Directors.

ARTICLE III

STOCKHOLDERS’ MEETINGS

Section 4. Place of Meetings. Meetings of the stockholders of the corporation may be held at such place, either within or without the State of Delaware, as may be determined from time to time by the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors may, in its sole discretion, determine that the meeting shall not be held at any place, but may instead be held solely by means of remote communication as provided under the Delaware General Corporation Law (“DGCL”).

Section 5. Annual Meetings.

(a) The annual meeting of the stockholders of the corporation, for the purpose of election of directors and for such other business as may properly come before it, shall be held on such date and at such time as may be designated from time to time by the Board of Directors. Nominations of persons for election to the Board of Directors of the corporation and the proposal of business to be considered by the stockholders may be made at an annual meeting of stockholders: (i) pursuant to the corporation’s notice of meeting of stockholders (with respect to business other than nominations); (ii) if brought before the meeting specifically by or at the direction of the Board of Directors; or (iii) if brought before the meeting by any stockholder of the corporation who was a stockholder of record at the time of giving the stockholder’s notice provided for in Section 5(b) below, who is entitled to vote at the meeting and who complied with the notice procedures set forth in Section 5. For the avoidance of doubt, clause (iii) above shall be the exclusive means for a stockholder to make nominations and submit other business (other than matters properly included in the corporation’s notice of meeting of stockholders and proxy statement under Rule 14a-8 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (the “1934 Act”)) before an annual meeting of stockholders.

(b) At an annual meeting of the stockholders, only such business shall be conducted as is a proper matter for stockholder action under Delaware law and as shall have been properly brought before the meeting.

 

1


(i) For nominations for the election to the Board of Directors to be properly brought before an annual meeting by a stockholder pursuant to clause (iii) of Section 5(a) of these Bylaws, the stockholder must deliver written notice to the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the corporation on a timely basis as set forth in Section 5(b)(iii) and must update and supplement such written notice on a timely basis as set forth in Section 5(c). Such stockholder’s notice shall set forth: (A) as to each nominee such stockholder proposes to nominate at the meeting: (1) the name, age, business address and residence address of such nominee, (2) the principal occupation or employment of such nominee, (3) the class and number of shares of each class of capital stock of the corporation that are owned of record and beneficially by such nominee, (4) the date or dates on which such shares were acquired and the investment intent of such acquisition, (5) a description of all direct and indirect compensation and other material monetary agreements, arrangements and understandings during the past three (3) years, and any other material relationships, between or among any Proponent, on the one hand, and each proposed nominee, and his or her respective affiliates and associates, on the other hand, including, without limitation, all information that would be required to be disclosed pursuant to Item 404 under Regulation S-K if such Proponent were the “registrant” for purposes of such rule and the proposed nominee were a director or executive officer of such registrant and (6) such other information concerning such nominee as would be required to be disclosed in a proxy statement soliciting proxies for the election of such nominee as a director in an election contest (even if an election contest is not involved), or that is otherwise required to be disclosed pursuant to Section 14 of the 1934 Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder (including such person’s written consent to being named as a nominee and to serving as a director if elected); and (B) the information required by Section 5(b)(iv). The corporation may require any proposed nominee to furnish such other information as it may reasonably require to determine the eligibility of such proposed nominee to serve as an independent director of the corporation or that could be material to a reasonable stockholder’s understanding of the independence, or lack thereof, of such proposed nominee. To be eligible for nomination for election as a director of the corporation, the proposed nominee must deliver, in accordance with the time periods prescribed for delivery of notice under Section 5(b)(iii), to the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the corporation a written questionnaire with respect to the background and qualification of such proposed nominee (which questionnaire shall be provided by the Secretary upon written request) and a written representation and agreement (in form provided by the Secretary upon written request) that such proposed nominee (x) is not and will not become a party to (A) any agreement, arrangement or understanding with, and has not given any commitment or assurance to, any person or entity as to how such proposed nominee, if elected as a director of the corporation, will act or vote on any issue or question (a “Voting Commitment”) that has not been disclosed to the corporation or (B) any Voting Commitment that could limit or interfere with such proposed nominee’s ability to comply, if elected as a director of the corporation, with such proposed nominee’s fiduciary duties under applicable law, (y) is not, and will not become a party to, any agreement, arrangement or understanding with any person or entity other than the corporation with respect to any direct or indirect compensation, reimbursement or indemnification in connection with service or action as a director that has not been disclosed to the corporation and (z) in such proposed nominee’s individual capacity and on behalf of the Proponent on whose behalf the nomination is made, would be in compliance, if elected as a director of the corporation, and will comply with applicable publicly disclosed corporate governance, conflict of interest, confidentiality and stock ownership and trading policies and guidelines of the corporation.

(ii) Other than proposals sought to be included in the corporation’s proxy materials pursuant to Rule 14a-8 under the 1934 Act, for business other than nominations for the election to the Board of Directors to be properly brought before an annual meeting by a stockholder pursuant to clause (iii) of Section 5(a) of these Bylaws, the stockholder must deliver written notice to the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the corporation on a timely basis as set forth in Section 5(b)(iii), and must update and supplement such written notice on a timely basis as set forth in Section 5(c). Such stockholder’s notice shall set forth: (A) as to each matter such stockholder proposes to bring before the meeting, a brief description of the business desired to be brought before the meeting, the reasons for conducting such business at the meeting, and any material interest (including any anticipated benefit of such business to any Proponent (as defined below) other than solely as a result of its ownership of the corporation’s capital stock, that is material to any Proponent individually, or to the Proponents in the aggregate) in such business of any Proponent; and (B) the information required by Section 5(b)(iv).

(iii) To be timely, the written notice required by Section 5(b)(i) or 5(b)(ii) must be received by the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the corporation not later than the close of business on the ninetieth (90th) day nor earlier than the close of business on the one hundred twentieth (120th) day prior to the first anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting; provided, however, that, subject to the last sentence of this Section 5(b)(iii), in the

 

2


event that the date of the annual meeting is advanced more than thirty (30) days prior to or delayed by more than sixty (60) days after the anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting, notice by the stockholder to be timely must be so received not later than the close of business on the later of the ninetieth (90th) day prior to such annual meeting or the tenth (10th) day following the day on which public announcement of the date of such meeting is first made. In no event shall an adjournment or a postponement of an annual meeting for which notice has been given, or the public announcement thereof has been made, commence a new time period for the giving of a stockholder’s notice as described above.

(iv) The written notice required by Section 5(b)(i) or 5(b)(ii) shall also set forth, as of the date of the notice and as to the stockholder giving the notice and the beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the nomination or proposal is made (each, a “Proponent” and collectively, the “Proponents”): (A) the name and address of each Proponent, as they appear on the corporation’s books; (B) the class, series and number of shares of the corporation that are owned beneficially and of record by each Proponent; (C) a description of any agreement, arrangement or understanding (whether oral or in writing) with respect to such nomination or proposal between or among any Proponent and any of its affiliates or associates, and any others (including their names) acting in concert, or otherwise under the agreement, arrangement or understanding, with any of the foregoing; (D) a representation that the Proponents are holders of record or beneficial owners, as the case may be, of shares of the corporation entitled to vote at the meeting and intend to appear in person or by proxy at the meeting to nominate the person or persons specified in the notice (with respect to a notice under Section 5(b)(i)) or to propose the business that is specified in the notice (with respect to a notice under Section 5(b)(ii)); (E) a representation as to whether the Proponents intend to deliver a proxy statement and form of proxy to holders of a sufficient number of holders of the corporation’s voting shares to elect such nominee or nominees (with respect to a notice under Section 5(b)(i)) or to carry such proposal (with respect to a notice under Section 5(b)(ii)); (F) to the extent known by any Proponent, the name and address of any other stockholder supporting the proposal on the date of such stockholder’s notice; and (G) a description of all Derivative Transactions (as defined below) by each Proponent during the previous twelve (12) month period, including the date of the transactions and the class, series and number of securities involved in, and the material economic terms of, such Derivative Transactions.

For purposes of this Section 5, a “Derivative Transaction” means any agreement, arrangement, interest or understanding entered into by, or on behalf or for the benefit of, any Proponent or any of its affiliates or associates, whether record or beneficial:

(w) the value of which is derived in whole or in part from the value of any class or series of shares or other securities of the corporation,

(x) that otherwise provides any direct or indirect opportunity to gain or share in any gain derived from a change in the value of securities of the corporation,

(y) the effect or intent of which is to mitigate loss, manage risk or benefit of security value or price changes, or

(z) that provides the right to vote or increase or decrease the voting power of, such Proponent, or any of its affiliates or associates, with respect to any securities of the corporation,

which agreement, arrangement, interest or understanding may include, without limitation, any option, warrant, debt position, note, bond, convertible security, swap, stock appreciation right, short position, profit interest, hedge, right to dividends, voting agreement, performance-related fee or arrangement to borrow or lend shares (whether or not subject to payment, settlement, exercise or conversion in any such class or series), and any proportionate interest of such Proponent in the securities of the corporation held by any general or limited partnership, or any limited liability company, of which such Proponent is, directly or indirectly, a general partner or managing member.

(c) A stockholder providing written notice required by Section 5(b)(i) or (ii) shall update and supplement such notice in writing, if necessary, so that the information provided or required to be provided in such notice is true and correct in all material respects as of (i) the record date for the meeting and (ii) the date that is five (5) business days prior to the meeting and, in the event of any adjournment or postponement thereof, five (5) business days prior to such adjourned or postponed meeting. In the case of an update and supplement pursuant to clause (i) of this Section 5(c), such update and supplement shall be received by the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the corporation not later than five (5) business days after the record date for the meeting. In the case of an update and supplement pursuant to clause (ii) of this Section 5(c), such update and supplement shall be received by the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the corporation not later than two (2) business days prior to the date for the meeting, and, in the event of any adjournment or postponement thereof, two (2) business days prior to such adjourned or postponed meeting.

 

3


(d) A person shall not be eligible for election or re-election as a director unless the person is nominated either in accordance with clause (ii) of Section 5(a), or in accordance with clause (iii) of Section 5(a). Except as otherwise required by law, the chairman of the meeting shall have the power and duty to determine whether a nomination or any business proposed to be brought before the meeting was made, or proposed, as the case may be, in accordance with the procedures set forth in these Bylaws and, if any proposed nomination or business is not in compliance with these Bylaws, or the Proponent does not act in accordance with the representations in Sections 5(b)(iv)(D) and 5(b)(iv)(E), to declare that such proposal or nomination shall not be presented for stockholder action at the meeting and shall be disregarded, notwithstanding that proxies in respect of such nominations or such business may have been solicited or received.

(e) Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 5, to include information with respect to a stockholder proposal in the proxy statement and form of proxy for a stockholders’ meeting, a stockholder must also comply with all applicable requirements of the 1934 Act and the rules and regulations thereunder. Nothing in these Bylaws shall be deemed to affect any rights of stockholders to request inclusion of proposals in the corporation’s proxy statement pursuant to Rule 14a-8 under the 1934 Act; provided, however, that any references in these Bylaws to the 1934 Act or the rules and regulations thereunder are not intended to and shall not limit the requirements applicable to proposals and/or nominations to be considered pursuant to Section 5(a)(iii) of these Bylaws.

(f) For purposes of this Section 5,

(i) “public announcement” shall mean disclosure in a press release reported by the Dow Jones News Service, Associated Press or comparable national news service or in a document publicly filed by the corporation with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Section 13, 14 or 15(d) of the 1934 Act; and

(ii) “affiliates” and “associates” shall have the meanings set forth in Rule 405 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “1933 Act”).

Section 6. Special Meetings.

(a) Special meetings of the stockholders of the corporation may be called, for any purpose as is a proper matter for stockholder action under Delaware law, by (i) the Chairman of the Board of Directors, (ii) the Chief Executive Officer, or (iii) the Board of Directors pursuant to a resolution adopted at a duly constituted meeting by a majority of the total number of authorized directors (whether or not there exist any vacancies in previously authorized directorships at the time any such resolution is presented to the Board of Directors for adoption) or by unanimous written consent of the directors then in office.

(b) The Board of Directors shall determine the time and place, if any, of such special meeting. Upon determination of the time and place, if any, of the meeting, the Secretary shall cause a notice of meeting to be given to the stockholders entitled to vote, in accordance with the provisions of Section 7 of these Bylaws. No business may be transacted at such special meeting otherwise than specified in the notice of meeting.

(c) Nominations of persons for election to the Board of Directors may be made at a special meeting of stockholders at which directors are to be elected (i) by or at the direction of the Board of Directors or (ii) by any stockholder of the corporation who is a stockholder of record at the time of giving notice provided for in this paragraph, who shall be entitled to vote at the meeting and who delivers written notice to the Secretary of the corporation setting forth the information required by Sections 5(b)(i), 5(b)(iv) and 5(c). In the event the corporation calls a special meeting of stockholders for the purpose of electing one (1) or more directors to the Board of Directors, any such stockholder of record may nominate a person or persons (as the case may be), for election to such position(s) as specified in the corporation’s notice of meeting, if written notice setting forth the information required by Sections 5(b)(i) and 5(b)(iv) of these Bylaws shall be received by the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the corporation not later than the close of business on the later of the ninetieth (90th) day prior to such meeting or the tenth (10th) day

 

4


following the day on which public announcement is first made of the date of the special meeting and of the nominees proposed by the Board of Directors to be elected at such meeting. The stockholder shall also update and supplement such information as required under Section 5(c). In no event shall an adjournment or a postponement of a special meeting for which notice has been given, or the public announcement thereof has been made, commence a new time period for the giving of a stockholder’s notice as described above.

(d) Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 6, a stockholder must also comply with all applicable requirements of the 1934 Act and the rules and regulations thereunder with respect to matters set forth in this Section 6. Nothing in these Bylaws shall be deemed to affect any rights of stockholders to request inclusion of proposals in the corporation’s proxy statement pursuant to Rule 14a-8 under the 1934 Act; provided, however, that any references in these Bylaws to the 1934 Act or the rules and regulations thereunder are not intended to and shall not limit the requirements applicable to nominations for the election to the Board of Directors to be considered pursuant to Section 6(c) of these Bylaws.

Section 7. Notice of Meetings. Except as otherwise provided by law, notice, given in writing or by electronic transmission, of each meeting of stockholders shall be given not less than ten (10) nor more than sixty (60) days before the date of the meeting to each stockholder entitled to vote at such meeting, such notice to specify the place, if any, date and hour, in the case of special meetings, the purpose or purposes of the meeting, and the means of remote communications, if any, by which stockholders and proxy holders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at any such meeting. If mailed, notice is given when deposited in the United States mail, postage prepaid, directed to the stockholder at such stockholder’s address as it appears on the records of the corporation. Notice of the time, place, if any, and purpose of any meeting of stockholders may be waived in writing, signed by the person entitled to notice thereof, or by electronic transmission by such person, either before or after such meeting, and will be waived by any stockholder by his or her attendance thereat in person, by remote communication, if applicable, or by proxy, except when the stockholder attends a meeting for the express purpose of objecting, at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened. Any stockholder so waiving notice of such meeting shall be bound by the proceedings of any such meeting in all respects as if due notice thereof had been given.

Section 8. Quorum and Voting. At all meetings of stockholders, except where otherwise provided by statute or by the Certificate of Incorporation, or by these Bylaws, the presence, in person, by remote communication, if applicable, or by proxy duly authorized, of the holders of a majority one-third (1/3) of the outstanding shares of stock entitled to vote shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. In the absence of a quorum, any meeting of stockholders may be adjourned, from time to time, either by the chairman of the meeting or by vote of the holders of a majority of the shares represented thereat, but no other business shall be transacted at such meeting. The stockholders present at a duly called or convened meeting, at which a quorum is present, may continue to transact business until adjournment, notwithstanding the withdrawal of enough stockholders to leave less than a quorum.

Except as otherwise provided by statute or by applicable stock exchange rules, or by the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, in all matters other than the election of directors, the affirmative vote of the majority of shares present in person, by remote communication, if applicable, or represented by proxy at the meeting and entitled to vote generally on the subject matter shall be the act of the stockholders.

Except as otherwise provided by statute, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, directors shall be elected by a plurality of the votes of the shares present in person, by remote communication, if applicable, or represented by proxy at the meeting and entitled to vote generally on the election of directors.

Where a separate vote by a class or classes or series is required, except where otherwise provided by the statute or by the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, a majority one-third (1/3) of the outstanding shares of such class or classes or series, present in person, by remote communication, if applicable, or represented by proxy duly authorized, shall constitute a quorum entitled to take action with respect to that vote on that matter. Except where otherwise provided by statute or by the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, the affirmative vote of the majority (plurality, in the case of the election of directors) of shares of such class or classes or series present in person, by remote communication, if applicable, or represented by proxy at the meeting shall be the act of such class or classes or series.

 

5


Section 9. Adjournment and Notice of Adjourned Meetings. Any meeting of stockholders, whether annual or special, may be adjourned from time to time either by the chairman of the meeting or by the vote of a majority of the shares present in person, by remote communication, if applicable, or represented by proxy at the meeting. When a meeting is adjourned to another time or place, if any, notice need not be given of the adjourned meeting if the time and place, if any, thereof are announced at the meeting at which the adjournment is taken. At the adjourned meeting, the corporation may transact any business that might have been transacted at the original meeting. If the adjournment is for more than thirty (30) days, a notice of the adjourned meeting shall be given to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at the meeting. If after the adjournment, a new record date for stockholders entitled to vote is fixed for the adjourned meeting, the Board of Directors shall fix a new record date for notice of such adjourned meeting in accordance with applicable law, and shall give notice of the adjourned meeting to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at such adjourned meeting as of the record date fixed for notice of such adjourned meeting.

Section 10. Voting Rights. For the purpose of determining those stockholders entitled to vote at any meeting of the stockholders, except as otherwise provided by law, only persons in whose names shares stand on the stock records of the corporation on the record date, as provided in Section 12 of these Bylaws, shall be entitled to vote at any meeting of stockholders. Each stockholder entitled to vote shall have the right to do so either in person, by remote communication, if applicable, or by an agent or agents authorized by a proxy granted in accordance with Delaware law. An agent so appointed need not be a stockholder. No proxy shall be voted after three (3) years from its date of creation unless the proxy provides for a longer period.

Section 11. Joint Owners of Stock. If shares or other securities having voting power stand of record in the names of two (2) or more persons, whether fiduciaries, members of a partnership, joint tenants, tenants in common, tenants by the entirety, or otherwise, or if two (2) or more persons have the same fiduciary relationship respecting the same shares, unless the Secretary is given written notice to the contrary and is furnished with a copy of the instrument or order appointing them or creating the relationship wherein it is so provided, their acts with respect to voting shall have the following effect: (a) if only one (1) votes, his or her act binds all; (b) if more than one (1) votes, the act of the majority so voting binds all; (c) if more than one (1) votes, but the vote is evenly split on any particular matter, each faction may vote the securities in question proportionally, or any person voting the shares, or any beneficiary, if any, may apply to the Delaware Court of Chancery for relief as provided in the DGCL, Section 217(b). If the instrument filed with the Secretary shows that any such tenancy is held in unequal interests, a majority or even-split for the purpose of subsection (c) shall be a majority or even-split in interest.

Section 12. List of Stockholders. The Secretary shall prepare and make, at least ten (10) days before every meeting of stockholders, a complete list of the stockholders entitled to vote at said meeting; provided, however, if the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote is less than ten (10) days before the meeting date, the list shall reflect the stockholders entitled to vote as of the tenth day before the meeting date, arranged in alphabetical order, and showing the address of each stockholder and the number of shares registered in the name of each stockholder. Such list shall be open to the examination of any stockholder for any purpose germane to the meeting for a period of at least ten (10) days prior to the meeting: (a) on a reasonably accessible electronic network, provided that the information required to gain access to such list is provided with the notice of the meeting, or (b) during ordinary business hours, at the principal place of business of the corporation. In the event that the corporation determines to make the list available on an electronic network, the corporation may take reasonable steps to ensure that such information is available only to stockholders of the corporation. If the meeting is to be held at a place, then a list of stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting shall be produced and kept at the time and place of the meeting during the whole time thereof and may be examined by any stockholder who is present. If the meeting is to be held solely by means of remote communication, then such list shall also be open to the examination of any stockholder during the whole time of the meeting on a reasonably accessible electronic network, and the information required to access such list shall be provided with the notice of the meeting.

Section 13. Action without Meeting. No action shall be taken by the stockholders except at an annual or special meeting of stockholders called in accordance with these Bylaws, and no action shall be taken by the stockholders by written consent or by electronic transmission.

 

6


Section 14. Organization.

(a) At every meeting of stockholders, the Chairman of the Board of Directors, or, if a Chairman has not been appointed or is absent, the President, or, if the President is absent, a chairman of the meeting chosen by a majority in interest of the stockholders entitled to vote, present in person or by proxy, shall act as chairman. The Secretary, or, in his or her absence, an Assistant Secretary directed to do so by the President, shall act as secretary of the meeting.

(b) The Board of Directors of the corporation shall be entitled to make such rules or regulations for the conduct of meetings of stockholders as it shall deem necessary, appropriate or desirable. Subject to such rules and regulations of the Board of Directors, if any, the chairman of the meeting shall have the right and authority to prescribe such rules, regulations and procedures and to do all such acts as, in the judgment of such chairman, are necessary, appropriate or desirable for the proper conduct of the meeting, including, without limitation, establishing an agenda or order of business for the meeting, rules and procedures for maintaining order at the meeting and the safety of those present, limitations on participation in such meeting to stockholders of record of the corporation and their duly authorized and constituted proxies and such other persons as the chairman shall permit, restrictions on entry to the meeting after the time fixed for the commencement thereof, limitations on the time allotted to questions or comments by participants and regulation of the opening and closing of the polls for balloting on matters which are to be voted on by ballot. The date and time of the opening and closing of the polls for each matter upon which the stockholders will vote at the meeting shall be announced at the meeting. Unless and to the extent determined by the Board of Directors or the chairman of the meeting, meetings of stockholders shall not be required to be held in accordance with rules of parliamentary procedure.

ARTICLE IV

DIRECTORS

Section 15. Number and Term of Office. The authorized number of directors of the corporation shall be fixed in accordance with the Certificate of Incorporation. Directors need not be stockholders unless so required by the Certificate of Incorporation. If for any cause, the directors shall not have been elected at an annual meeting, they may be elected as soon thereafter as convenient at a special meeting of the stockholders called for that purpose in the manner provided in these Bylaws.

Section 16. Powers. The business and affairs of the corporation shall be managed by or under the direction of the Board of Directors, except as may be otherwise provided by statute or by the Certificate of Incorporation.

Section 17. Classes of Directors. Subject to the rights of the holders of any series of Preferred Stock to elect additional directors under specified circumstances, the directors shall be divided into three (3) classes designated as Class I, Class II and Class III, respectively. The Board of Directors is authorized to assign members of the Board of Directors already in office to such classes at the time the classification becomes effective. At the first annual meeting of stockholders following the initial classification of the Board of Directors, the term of office of the Class I directors shall expire and Class I directors shall be elected for a full term of three (3) years. At the second annual meeting of stockholders following such initial classification, the term of office of the Class II directors shall expire and Class II directors shall be elected for a full term of three (3) years. At the third annual meeting of stockholders following such initial classification, the term of office of the Class III directors shall expire and Class III directors shall be elected for a full term of three (3) years. At each succeeding annual meeting of stockholders, directors shall be elected for a full term of three (3) years to succeed the directors of the class whose terms expire at such annual meeting.

Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this section, each director shall hold office until such director’s successor is duly elected and qualified or until such director’s earlier death, resignation or removal. No decrease in the number of directors constituting the Board of Directors shall shorten the term of any incumbent director.

Section 18. Vacancies. Unless otherwise provided in the Certificate of Incorporation, and subject to the rights of the holders of any series of Preferred Stock, any vacancies on the Board of Directors resulting from death, resignation, disqualification, removal or other causes and any newly created directorships resulting from any increase in the number of directors shall, unless the Board of Directors determines by resolution that any such vacancies or newly created directorships shall be filled by stockholders, be filled only by the affirmative vote of a majority of the directors then in office, even though less than a quorum of the Board of Directors, or by a sole remaining director,

 

7


and not by the stockholders, provided, however, that whenever the holders of any class or classes of stock or series thereof are entitled to elect one (1) or more directors by the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation, vacancies and newly created directorships of such class or classes or series shall, unless the Board of Directors determines by resolution that any such vacancies or newly created directorships shall be filled by stockholders, be filled by a majority of the directors elected by such class or classes or series thereof then in office, or by a sole remaining director so elected, and not by the stockholders. Any director elected in accordance with the preceding sentence shall hold office for the remainder of the full term of the director for which the vacancy was created or occurred and until such director’s successor shall have been elected and qualified. A vacancy in the Board of Directors shall be deemed to exist under this Bylaw in the case of the death, removal or resignation of any director.

Section 19. Resignation. Any director may resign at any time by delivering his or her notice in writing or by electronic transmission to the Secretary, such resignation to specify whether it will be effective at a particular time. If no such specification is made, it shall be deemed effective at the time of delivery to the Secretary. When one (1) or more directors shall resign from the Board of Directors, effective at a future date, a majority of the directors then in office, including those who have so resigned, shall have power to fill such vacancy or vacancies, the vote thereon to take effect when such resignation or resignations shall become effective, and each Director so chosen shall hold office for the unexpired portion of the term of the Director whose place shall be vacated and until his or her successor shall have been duly elected and qualified.

Section 20. Removal.

(a) Subject to the rights of any series of Preferred Stock to elect additional directors under specified circumstances, neither the Board of Directors nor any individual director may be removed without cause.

(b) Subject to any limitation imposed by law, any individual director or directors may be removed with cause by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least sixty-six and two-thirds percent (66-2/3%) of the voting power of all then outstanding shares of capital stock of the corporation entitled to vote generally at an election of directors.

Section 21. Meetings.

(a) Regular Meetings. Unless otherwise restricted by the Certificate of Incorporation, regular meetings of the Board of Directors may be held at any time or date and at any place within or without the State of Delaware which has been designated by the Board of Directors and publicized among all directors, either orally or in writing, by telephone, including a voice-messaging system or other system designed to record and communicate messages, facsimile, telegraph or telex, or by electronic mail or other electronic means. No further notice shall be required for regular meetings of the Board of Directors.

(b) Special Meetings. Unless otherwise restricted by the Certificate of Incorporation, special meetings of the Board of Directors may be held at any time and place within or without the State of Delaware whenever called by the Chairman of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer or a majority of the authorized number of directors.

(c) Meetings by Electronic Communications Equipment. Any member of the Board of Directors, or of any committee thereof, may participate in a meeting by means of conference telephone or other communications equipment by means of which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other, and participation in a meeting by such means shall constitute presence in person at such meeting.

(d) Notice of Special Meetings. Notice of the time and place of all special meetings of the Board of Directors shall be given orally or in writing, by telephone, including a voice messaging system or other system or technology designed to record and communicate messages, facsimile, telegraph or telex, or by electronic mail or other electronic means, at least twenty-four (24) hours before the date and time of the meeting. If notice is sent by US mail, it shall be sent by first class mail, charges prepaid, at least three (3) days before the date of the meeting. Notice of any meeting may be waived in writing, or by electronic transmission, at any time before or after the meeting and will be waived by any director by attendance thereat, except when the director attends the meeting for the express purpose of objecting, at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened.

 

8


(e) Waiver of Notice. The transaction of all business at any meeting of the Board of Directors, or any committee thereof, however called or noticed, or wherever held, shall be as valid as though it had been transacted at a meeting duly held after regular call and notice, if a quorum be present and if, either before or after the meeting, each of the directors not present who did not receive notice shall sign a written waiver of notice or shall waive notice by electronic transmission. All such waivers shall be filed with the corporate records or made a part of the minutes of the meeting.

Section 22. Quorum and Voting.

(a) Unless the Certificate of Incorporation requires a greater number a quorum of the Board of Directors shall consist of a majority of the authorized number of directors fixed from time to time by the Board of Directors in accordance with the Certificate of Incorporation; provided, however, at any meeting whether a quorum be present or otherwise, a majority of the directors present may adjourn from time to time until the time fixed for the next regular meeting of the Board of Directors, without notice other than by announcement at the meeting.

(b) At each meeting of the Board of Directors at which a quorum is present, all questions and business shall be determined by the affirmative vote of a majority of the directors present, unless a different vote be required by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws.

Section 23. Action without Meeting. Unless otherwise restricted by the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of the Board of Directors or of any committee thereof may be taken without a meeting, if all members of the Board of Directors or committee, as the case may be, consent thereto in writing or by electronic transmission, and such writing or writings or transmission or transmissions are filed with the minutes of proceedings of the Board of Directors or committee. Such filing shall be in paper form if the minutes are maintained in paper form and shall be in electronic form if the minutes are maintained in electronic form.

Section 24. Fees and Compensation. Directors shall be entitled to such compensation for their services as may be approved by the Board of Directors, including, if so approved, by resolution of the Board of Directors, a fixed sum and expenses of attendance, if any, for attendance at each regular or special meeting of the Board of Directors and at any meeting of a committee of the Board of Directors. Nothing herein contained shall be construed to preclude any director from serving the corporation in any other capacity as an officer, agent, employee, or otherwise and receiving compensation therefor.

Section 25. Committees.

(a) Executive Committee. The Board of Directors may appoint an Executive Committee to consist of one (1) or more members of the Board of Directors. The Executive Committee, to the extent permitted by law and provided in the resolution of the Board of Directors, shall have and may exercise all the powers and authority of the Board of Directors in the management of the business and affairs of the corporation, and may authorize the seal of the corporation to be affixed to all papers which may require it; but no such committee shall have the power or authority in reference to (i) approving or adopting, or recommending to the stockholders, any action or matter (other than the election or removal of directors) expressly required by the DGCL to be submitted to stockholders for approval, or (ii) adopting, amending or repealing any Bylaw of the corporation.

(b) Other Committees. The Board of Directors may, from time to time, appoint such other committees as may be permitted by law. Such other committees appointed by the Board of Directors shall consist of one (1) or more members of the Board of Directors and shall have such powers and perform such duties as may be prescribed by the resolution or resolutions creating such committees, but in no event shall any such committee have the powers denied to the Executive Committee in these Bylaws. Unless otherwise provided in the Certificate of Incorporation, these Bylaws, or the resolution of the Board of Directors designating the committee, a committee may create one (1) or more subcommittees, each subcommittee to consist of one (1) or more members of the committee, and delegate to a subcommittee any or all of the powers and authority of the committee.

 

9


(c) Term. The Board of Directors, subject to any requirements of any outstanding series of Preferred Stock and the provisions of subsections (a) or (b) of this Section 25, may at any time increase or decrease the number of members of a committee or terminate the existence of a committee. The membership of a committee member shall terminate on the date of his or her death or voluntary resignation from the committee or from the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors may at any time for any reason remove any individual committee member and the Board of Directors may fill any committee vacancy created by death, resignation, removal or increase in the number of members of the committee. The Board of Directors may designate one (1) or more directors as alternate members of any committee, who may replace any absent or disqualified member at any meeting of the committee, and, in addition, in the absence or disqualification of any member of a committee, the member or members thereof present at any meeting and not disqualified from voting, whether or not he, she or they constitute a quorum, may unanimously appoint another member of the Board of Directors to act at the meeting in the place of any such absent or disqualified member.

(d) Meetings. Unless the Board of Directors shall otherwise provide, regular meetings of the Executive Committee or any other committee appointed pursuant to this Section 25 shall be held at such times and places as are determined by the Board of Directors, or by any such committee, and when notice thereof has been given to each member of such committee, no further notice of such regular meetings need be given thereafter. Special meetings of any such committee may be held at any place which has been determined from time to time by such committee, and may be called by any director who is a member of such committee, upon notice to the members of such committee of the time and place of such special meeting given in the manner provided for the giving of notice to members of the Board of Directors of the time and place of special meetings of the Board of Directors. Notice of any special meeting of any committee may be waived in writing or by electronic transmission at any time before or after the meeting and will be waived by any director by attendance thereat, except when the director attends such special meeting for the express purpose of objecting, at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened. Unless otherwise provided by the Board of Directors in the resolutions authorizing the creation of the committee, a majority of the authorized number of members of any such committee shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business, and the act of a majority of those present at any meeting at which a quorum is present shall be the act of such committee.

Section 26. Duties of Chairman of the Board of Directors. The Chairman of the Board of Directors, when present, shall preside at all meetings of the stockholders and the Board of Directors. The Chairman of the Board of Directors shall perform other duties commonly incident to the office and shall also perform such other duties and have such other powers, as the Board of Directors shall designate from time to time.

Section 27. Organization. At every meeting of the directors, the Chairman of the Board of Directors, or, if a Chairman has not been appointed or is absent, the Chief Executive Officer (if a director), or, if a Chief Executive Officer is absent, the President (if a director) or, in the absence of any such person, a chairman pro tempore of the meeting chosen by a majority of the directors present, shall preside over the meeting. The Secretary, or in his or her absence, any Assistant Secretary or other officer or director directed to do so by the President, shall act as secretary of the meeting.

ARTICLE V

OFFICERS

Section 28. Officers Designated. The officers of the corporation shall include, if and when designated by the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer, the President, one (1) or more Vice Presidents, the Secretary, the Chief Financial Officer and the Treasurer. The Board of Directors may also appoint one (1) or more Assistant Secretaries and Assistant Treasurers and such other officers and agents with such powers and duties as it shall deem necessary, appropriate or desirable. The Board of Directors may assign such additional titles to one (1) or more of the officers as it shall deem necessary, appropriate or desirable. Any one (1) person may hold any number of offices of the corporation at any one time unless specifically prohibited therefrom by law. The salaries and other compensation of the officers of the corporation shall be fixed by or in the manner designated by the Board of Directors.

 

10


Section 29. Tenure and Duties of Officers.

(a) General. All officers shall hold office at the pleasure of the Board of Directors and until their successors shall have been duly elected and qualified, unless sooner removed. Any officer elected or appointed by the Board of Directors may be removed at any time by the Board of Directors. If the office of any officer becomes vacant for any reason, the vacancy may be filled by the Board of Directors.

(b) Duties of Chief Executive Officer. Unless an officer has been appointed Chief Executive Officer of the corporation, the President shall be the chief executive officer of the corporation and shall, subject to the control of the Board of Directors, have general supervision, direction and control of the business and officers of the corporation. To the extent that a Chief Executive Officer has been appointed and no President has been appointed, all references in these Bylaws to the President shall be deemed references to the Chief Executive Officer. The Chief Executive Officer shall perform other duties commonly incident to the office and shall also perform such other duties and have such other powers, as the Board of Directors shall designate from time to time.

(c) Duties of President. Unless another officer has been appointed Chief Executive Officer of the corporation, the President shall be the chief executive officer of the corporation and shall, subject to the control of the Board of Directors, have general supervision, direction and control of the business and officers of the corporation. The President shall perform other duties commonly incident to the office and shall also perform such other duties and have such other powers, as the Board of Directors shall designate from time to time.

(d) Duties of Vice Presidents. To the extent designated by the Board of directors, any Vice President may assume and perform the duties of the President in the absence or disability of the President or whenever the office of President is vacant. The Vice Presidents shall perform other duties commonly incident to their office and shall also perform such other duties and have such other powers as the Board of Directors or the Chief Executive Officer, or, if the Chief Executive Officer has not been appointed or is absent, the President shall designate from time to time.

(e) Duties of Secretary. The Secretary shall attend meetings of the stockholders and of the Board of Directors and shall record all acts and proceedings thereof in the minute book of the corporation. The Secretary shall give notice in conformity with these Bylaws of all meetings of the stockholders and of all meetings of the Board of Directors and any committee thereof requiring notice. The Secretary shall perform all other duties provided for in these Bylaws and other duties commonly incident to the office and shall also perform such other duties and have such other powers, as the Board of Directors shall designate from time to time. The President may direct any Assistant Secretary or other officer to assume and perform the duties of the Secretary in the absence or disability of the Secretary, and each Assistant Secretary shall perform other duties commonly incident to the office and shall also perform such other duties and have such other powers as the Board of Directors or the President shall designate from time to time.

(f) Duties of Chief Financial Officer. The Chief Financial Officer shall keep or cause to be kept the books of account of the corporation in a thorough and proper manner and shall render statements of the financial affairs of the corporation in such form and as often as required by the Board of Directors or the President. The Chief Financial Officer, subject to the order of the Board of Directors, shall have the custody of all funds and securities of the corporation. The Chief Financial Officer shall perform other duties commonly incident to the office and shall also perform such other duties and have such other powers as the Board of Directors or the President shall designate from time to time. To the extent that a Chief Financial Officer has been appointed and no Treasurer has been appointed, all references in these Bylaws to the Treasurer shall be deemed references to the Chief Financial Officer. The President may direct the Treasurer, if any, or any Assistant Treasurer, or the Controller or any Assistant Controller to assume and perform the duties of the Chief Financial Officer in the absence or disability of the Chief Financial Officer, and each Treasurer and Assistant Treasurer and each Controller and Assistant Controller shall perform other duties commonly incident to the office and shall also perform such other duties and have such other powers as the Board of Directors or the President shall designate from time to time.

(g) Duties of Treasurer. Unless another officer has been appointed Chief Financial Officer of the corporation, the Treasurer shall be the chief financial officer of the corporation and shall keep or cause to be kept the books of account of the corporation in a thorough and proper manner and shall render statements of the financial affairs of the corporation in such form and as often as required by the Board of Directors or the President, and, subject to the order of the Board of Directors, shall have the custody of all funds and securities of the corporation. The Treasurer shall perform other duties commonly incident to the office and shall also perform such other duties and have such other powers as the Board of Directors or the President shall designate from time to time.

 

11


Section 30. Delegation of Authority. The Board of Directors may from time to time delegate the powers or duties of any officer to any other officer or agent, notwithstanding any provision hereof.

Section 31. Resignations. Any officer may resign at any time by giving notice in writing or by electronic transmission to the Board of Directors or to the President or to the Secretary. Any such resignation shall be effective when received by the person or persons to whom such notice is given, unless a later time is specified therein, in which event the resignation shall become effective at such later time. Unless otherwise specified in such notice, the acceptance of any such resignation shall not be necessary to make it effective. Any resignation shall be without prejudice to the rights, if any, of the corporation under any contract with the resigning officer.

Section 32. Removal. Any officer may be removed from office at any time, either with or without cause, by the Board of Directors, or by any committee or by the Chief Executive Officer or by other superior officers upon whom such power of removal may have been conferred by the Board of Directors.

ARTICLE VI

EXECUTION OF CORPORATE INSTRUMENTS AND VOTING OF SECURITIES

OWNED BY THE CORPORATION

Section 33. Execution of Corporate Instruments. The Board of Directors may, in its discretion, determine the method and designate the signatory officer or officers, or other person or persons, to execute on behalf of the corporation any corporate instrument or document, or to sign on behalf of the corporation the corporate name without limitation, or to enter into contracts on behalf of the corporation, except where otherwise provided by law or these Bylaws, and such execution or signature shall be binding upon the corporation.

All checks and drafts drawn on banks or other depositaries on funds to the credit of the corporation or in special accounts of the corporation shall be signed by such person or persons as the Board of Directors shall authorize so to do.

Unless authorized or ratified by the Board of Directors or within the agency power of an officer, no officer, agent or employee shall have any power or authority to bind the corporation by any contract or engagement or to pledge its credit or to render it liable for any purpose or for any amount.

Section 34. Voting of Securities Owned by the Corporation. All stock and other securities of other corporations owned or held by the corporation for itself, or for other parties in any capacity, shall be voted, and all proxies with respect thereto shall be executed, by the person authorized so to do by resolution of the Board of Directors, or, in the absence of such authorization, by the Chairman of the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer, the President, or any Vice President.

ARTICLE VII

SHARES OF STOCK

Section 35. Form and Execution of Certificates. The shares of the corporation shall be represented by certificates, or shall be uncertificated if so provided by resolution or resolutions of the Board of Directors. Certificates for the shares of stock, if any, shall be in such form as is consistent with the Certificate of Incorporation and applicable law. Every holder of stock represented by certificate in the corporation shall be entitled to have a certificate signed by or in the name of the corporation by the Chairman of the Board of Directors, or the President or any Vice President and by the Treasurer or Assistant Treasurer or the Secretary or Assistant Secretary, certifying the number of shares owned by him or her in the corporation. Any or all of the signatures on the certificate may be facsimiles. In case any officer, transfer agent, or registrar who has signed or whose facsimile signature has been placed upon a certificate shall have ceased to be such officer, transfer agent, or registrar before such certificate is issued, it may be issued with the same effect as if he or she were such officer, transfer agent, or registrar at the date of issue.

 

12


Section 36. Lost Certificates. A new certificate or certificates shall be issued in place of any certificate or certificates theretofore issued by the corporation alleged to have been lost, stolen, or destroyed, upon the making of an affidavit of that fact by the person claiming the certificate of stock to be lost, stolen, or destroyed. The corporation may require, as a condition precedent to the issuance of a new certificate or certificates, the owner of such lost, stolen, or destroyed certificate or certificates, or the owner’s legal representative, to agree to indemnify the corporation in such manner as it shall require or to give the corporation a surety bond in such form and amount as it may direct as indemnity against any claim that may be made against the corporation with respect to the certificate alleged to have been lost, stolen, or destroyed.

Section 37. Transfers.

(a) Transfers of record of shares of stock of the corporation shall be made only upon its books by the holders thereof, in person or by attorney duly authorized, and, in the case of stock represented by certificate, upon the surrender of a properly endorsed certificate or certificates for a like number of shares.

(b) The corporation shall have power to enter into and perform any agreement with any number of stockholders of any one (1) or more classes of stock of the corporation to restrict the transfer of shares of stock of the corporation of any one (1) or more classes owned by such stockholders in any manner not prohibited by the DGCL.

Section 38. Fixing Record Dates.

(a) In order that the corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to notice of or vote at any meeting of stockholders or any adjournment thereof, the Board of Directors may fix a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the Board of Directors, and which record date shall not be more than sixty (60) nor less than ten (10) days before the date of such meeting. If the Board of Directors so fixes a date, such date shall also be the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at such meeting unless the Board of Directors determines, at the time it fixes such record date, that a later date on or before the date of the meeting shall be the date for making such determination. If no record date is fixed by the Board of Directors, the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall be at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which notice is given, or if notice is waived, at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which the meeting is held. A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall apply to any adjournment of the meeting; provided, however, that the Board of Directors may fix a new record date for determination of stockholders entitled to vote at the adjourned meeting, and in such case shall also fix as the record date for stockholders entitled to notice of such adjourned meeting the same or an earlier date as that fixed for determination of stockholders entitled to vote in accordance with the provisions of this Section 38 at the adjourned meeting.

(b) In order that the corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to receive payment of any dividend or other distribution or allotment of any rights or the stockholders entitled to exercise any rights in respect of any change, conversion or exchange of stock, or for the purpose of any other lawful action, the Board of Directors may fix, in advance, a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted, and which record date shall be not more than sixty (60) days prior to such action. If no record date is fixed, the record date for determining stockholders for any such purpose shall be at the close of business on the day on which the Board of Directors adopts the resolution relating thereto.

Section 39. Registered Stockholders. The corporation shall be entitled to recognize the exclusive right of a person registered on its books as the owner of shares to receive dividends, and to vote as such owner, and shall not be bound to recognize any equitable or other claim to or interest in such share or shares on the part of any other person whether or not it shall have express or other notice thereof, except as otherwise provided by the laws of Delaware.

 

13


ARTICLE VIII

OTHER SECURITIES OF THE CORPORATION

Section 40. Execution of Other Securities. All bonds, debentures and other corporate securities of the corporation, other than stock certificates (covered in Section 35), may be signed by the Chairman of the Board of Directors, the President or any Vice President, or such other person as may be authorized by the Board of Directors, and the corporate seal impressed thereon or a facsimile of such seal imprinted thereon and attested by the signature of the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary, or the Chief Financial Officer or Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer; provided, however, that where any such bond, debenture or other corporate security shall be authenticated by the manual signature, or where permissible facsimile signature, of a trustee under an indenture pursuant to which such bond, debenture or other corporate security shall be issued, the signatures of the persons signing and attesting the corporate seal on such bond, debenture or other corporate security may be the imprinted facsimile of the signatures of such persons. Interest coupons appertaining to any such bond, debenture or other corporate security, authenticated by a trustee as aforesaid, shall be signed by the Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer of the corporation or such other person as may be authorized by the Board of Directors, or bear imprinted thereon the facsimile signature of such person. In case any officer who shall have signed or attested any bond, debenture or other corporate security, or whose facsimile signature shall appear thereon or on any such interest coupon, shall have ceased to be such officer before the bond, debenture or other corporate security so signed or attested shall have been delivered, such bond, debenture or other corporate security nevertheless may be adopted by the corporation and issued and delivered as though the person who signed the same or whose facsimile signature shall have been used thereon had not ceased to be such officer of the corporation.

ARTICLE IX

DIVIDENDS

Section 41. Declaration of Dividends. Dividends upon the capital stock of the corporation, subject to the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation and applicable law, if any, may be declared by the Board of Directors pursuant to law at any regular or special meeting. Dividends may be paid in cash, in property, or in shares of the capital stock, subject to the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation and applicable law.

Section 42. Dividend Reserve. Before payment of any dividend, there may be set aside out of any funds of the corporation available for dividends such sum or sums as the Board of Directors from time to time, in their absolute discretion, think proper as a reserve or reserves to meet contingencies, or for equalizing dividends, or for repairing or maintaining any property of the corporation, or for such other purpose as the Board of Directors shall think conducive to the interests of the corporation, and the Board of Directors may modify or abolish any such reserve in the manner in which it was created.

ARTICLE X

FISCAL YEAR

Section 43. Fiscal Year. The fiscal year of the corporation may be fixed by resolution of the Board of Directors. In the absence of such resolution, the fiscal year of the corporation shall end on December 31 of each year.

ARTICLE XI

INDEMNIFICATION

Section 44. Definitions. For purposes of this Article XI:

(a) “Corporate Status” describes the status of a person who is serving or has served (i) as a Director of the corporation, (ii) as an Officer of the corporation, (iii) as a Non-Officer Employee of the corporation, or (iv) as a director, partner, trustee, officer, employee or agent of any other corporation, partnership, limited liability company, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan, foundation, association, organization or other legal entity which such person is or was serving at the request of the corporation. For purposes of this Section 44(a), a Director, Officer or

 

14


Non-Officer Employee of the corporation who is serving or has served as a director, partner, trustee, officer, employee or agent of a Subsidiary shall be deemed to be serving at the request of the corporation. Notwithstanding the foregoing, “Corporate Status” shall not include the status of a person who is serving or has served as a director, officer, employee or agent of a constituent corporation absorbed in a merger or consolidation transaction with the corporation with respect to such person’s activities prior to said transaction, unless specifically authorized by the Board of Directors or the stockholders of the corporation;

(b) “Director” means any person who serves or has served the corporation as a director on the Board of Directors of the corporation;

(c) “Disinterested Director” means, with respect to each Proceeding in respect of which indemnification is sought hereunder, a Director of the corporation who is not and was not a party to such Proceeding;

(d) “DGCL” means the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware.

(e) “Expenses” means all attorneys’ fees, retainers, court costs, transcript costs, fees of expert witnesses, private investigators and professional advisors (including, without limitation, accountants and investment bankers), travel expenses, duplicating costs, printing and binding costs, costs of preparation of demonstrative evidence and other courtroom presentation aids and devices, costs incurred in connection with document review, organization, imaging and computerization, telephone charges, postage, delivery service fees, and all other disbursements, costs or expenses of the type customarily incurred in connection with prosecuting, defending, preparing to prosecute or defend, investigating, being or preparing to be a witness in, settling or otherwise participating in, a Proceeding;

(f) “Liabilities” means judgments, damages, liabilities, losses, penalties, excise taxes, fines and amounts paid in settlement;

(g) “Non-Officer Employee” means any person who serves or has served as an employee or agent of the corporation, but who is not or was not a Director or Officer;

(h) “Officer” means any person who serves or has served the corporation as an officer of the corporation appointed by the Board of Directors of the corporation;

(i) “Proceeding” means any threatened, pending or completed action, suit, arbitration, alternate dispute resolution mechanism, inquiry, investigation, administrative hearing or other proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative, arbitrative or investigative; and

(j) “Subsidiary” shall mean any corporation, partnership, limited liability company, joint venture, trust or other entity of which the corporation owns (either directly or through or together with another Subsidiary of the corporation) either (i) a general partner, managing member or other similar interest or (ii) (A) fifty percent (50%) or more of the voting power of the voting capital equity interests of such corporation, partnership, limited liability company, joint venture or other entity, or (B) fifty percent (50%) or more of the outstanding voting capital stock or other voting equity interests of such corporation, partnership, limited liability company, joint venture or other entity.

Section 45. Indemnification of Directors and Officers.

(a) Subject to the operation of Section 47 of this Article XI of these By-laws, each Director and Officer shall be indemnified and held harmless by the corporation to the fullest extent authorized by the DGCL, as the same exists or may hereafter be amended (but, in the case of any such amendment, only to the extent that such amendment permits the corporation to provide broader indemnification rights than such law permitted the corporation to provide prior to such amendment), and to the extent authorized in this Section 45.

(1) Actions, Suits and Proceedings Other than By or In the Right of the corporation. Each Director and Officer shall be indemnified and held harmless by the corporation against any and all Expenses and Liabilities that are incurred or paid by such Director or Officer or on such Director’s or Officer’s behalf in connection with any Proceeding or any claim, issue or matter therein (other than an action by or in the right of the corporation), which such Director or

 

15


Officer is, or is threatened to be made, a party to or participant in by reason of such Director’s or Officer’s Corporate Status, if such Director or Officer acted in good faith and in a manner such Director or Officer reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation and, with respect to any criminal proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful.

(2) Actions, Suits and Proceedings By or In the Right of the corporation. Each Director and Officer shall be indemnified and held harmless by the corporation against any and all Expenses that are incurred by such Director or Officer or on such Director’s or Officer’s behalf in connection with any Proceeding or any claim, issue or matter therein by or in the right of the corporation, which such Director or Officer is, or is threatened to be made, a party to or participant in by reason of such Director’s or Officer’s Corporate Status, if such Director or Officer acted in good faith and in a manner such Director or Officer reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation; provided, however, that no indemnification shall be made under this Section 45(a)(2) in respect of any claim, issue or matter as to which such Director or Officer shall have been finally adjudged by a court of competent jurisdiction to be liable to the corporation, unless, and only to the extent that, the Court of Chancery or another court in which such Proceeding was brought shall determine upon application that, despite adjudication of liability, but in view of all the circumstances of the case, such Director or Officer is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnification for such Expenses that such court deems proper.

(3) Survival of Rights. The rights of indemnification provided by this Section 45 shall continue as to a Director or Officer after he or she has ceased to be a Director or Officer and shall inure to the benefit of his or her heirs, executors, administrators and personal representatives.

(4) Actions by Directors or Officers. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the corporation shall indemnify any Director or Officer seeking indemnification in connection with a Proceeding initiated by such Director or Officer only if such Proceeding (including any parts of such Proceeding not initiated by such Director or Officer) was authorized in advance by the Board of Directors of the corporation, unless such Proceeding was brought to enforce such Officer’s or Director’s rights to indemnification or, in the case of Directors, advancement of Expenses under these By-laws in accordance with the provisions set forth herein.

Section 46. Indemnification of Non-Officer Employees. Subject to the operation of Section 47 of this Article XI of these By-laws, each Non-Officer Employee may, in the discretion of the Board of Directors of the corporation, be indemnified by the corporation to the fullest extent authorized by the DGCL, as the same exists or may hereafter be amended, against any or all Expenses and Liabilities that are incurred by such Non-Officer Employee or on such Non-Officer Employee’s behalf in connection with any threatened, pending or completed Proceeding, or any claim, issue or matter therein, which such Non-Officer Employee is, or is threatened to be made, a party to or participant in by reason of such Non-Officer Employee’s Corporate Status, if such Non-Officer Employee acted in good faith and in a manner such Non-Officer Employee reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation and, with respect to any criminal proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful. The rights of indemnification provided by this Section 46 shall exist as to a Non-Officer Employee after he or she has ceased to be a Non-Officer Employee and shall inure to the benefit of his or her heirs, personal representatives, executors and administrators. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the corporation may indemnify any Non-Officer Employee seeking indemnification in connection with a Proceeding initiated by such Non-Officer Employee only if such Proceeding was authorized in advance by the Board of Directors of the corporation.

Section 47. Determination. Unless otherwise ordered by a court, no indemnification shall be provided pursuant to this Article XI to a Director, to an Officer or to a Non-Officer Employee unless a determination shall have been made that such person acted in good faith and in a manner such person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation and, with respect to any criminal Proceeding, such person had no reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful. Such determination shall be made by (a) a majority vote of the Disinterested Directors, even though less than a quorum of the Board of Directors, (b) a committee comprised of Disinterested Directors, such committee having been designated by a majority vote of the Disinterested Directors (even though less than a quorum), (c) if there are no such Disinterested Directors, or if a majority of Disinterested Directors so directs, by independent legal counsel in a written opinion, or (d) by the stockholders of the corporation.

 

16


Section 48. Advancement of Expenses to Directors Prior to Final Disposition.

(a) The corporation shall advance all Expenses incurred by or on behalf of any Director or Officer in connection with any Proceeding in which such Director or Officer is involved by reason of his or her Corporate Status within thirty (30) days after the receipt by the corporation of a written statement from such Director or Officer requesting such advance or advances from time to time, whether prior to or after final disposition of such Proceeding. Such statement or statements shall reasonably evidence the Expenses incurred by such Director or Officer and shall be preceded or accompanied by an undertaking by or on behalf of such Director or Officer to repay any Expenses so advanced if it shall ultimately be determined that such he or she is not entitled to be indemnified against such Expenses. Notwithstanding the foregoing, (i) the corporation shall advance Expenses incurred by or on behalf of any Director or Officer seeking advancement of expenses hereunder in connection with a Proceeding initiated by such Director or Officer only if such Proceeding (including any parts of such Proceeding not initiated by such Director or Officer) was (A) authorized by the Board of Directors of the corporation, or (B) brought to enforce such Director’s or Officer’s rights to indemnification or advancement of Expenses under these Bylaws and (ii) no such advancement of Expenses shall be made if it is determined by (A) a majority vote of the Disinterested Directors, even though less than a quorum of the Board of Directors or (B) a committee comprised of Disinterested Directors, such committee having been designated by a majority vote of the Disinterested Directors (even though less than a quorum), that (I) the Director or Officer requesting the advancement of Expenses did not act in good faith and in a manner he or she reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed to, the best interests of the Corporation, or (ii) with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, the Director or Officer requesting the advancement of Expenses had reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful.

(b) If a claim for advancement of Expenses hereunder by a Director or Officer is not paid in full by the corporation within thirty (30) days after receipt by the corporation of documentation of Expenses and the required undertaking, such Director or Officer may at any time thereafter bring suit against the corporation to recover the unpaid amount of the claim and if successful in whole or in part, such Director or Officer shall also be entitled to be paid the expenses of prosecuting such claim. The failure of the corporation (including its Board of Directors or any committee thereof, independent legal counsel, or stockholders) to make a determination concerning the permissibility of such advancement of Expenses under this Article XI shall not be a defense to an action brought by a Director or Officer for recovery of the unpaid amount of an advancement claim and shall not create a presumption that such advancement is not permissible. The burden of proving that a Director or Officer is not entitled to an advancement of expenses shall be on the corporation.

(c) In any suit brought by the corporation to recover an advancement of expenses pursuant to the terms of an undertaking, the corporation shall be entitled to recover such expenses upon a final adjudication that the Director or Officer has not met any applicable standard for indemnification set forth in the DGCL.

Section 49. Advancement of Expenses to Officers and Non-Officer Employees Prior to Final Disposition.

(a) The corporation may, at the discretion of the Board of Directors of the corporation, advance any or all Expenses incurred by or on behalf of any Non-Officer Employee in connection with any Proceeding in which such person is involved by reason of his or her Corporate Status as a Non-Officer Employee upon the receipt by the corporation of a statement or statements from such Non-Officer Employee requesting such advance or advances from time to time, whether prior to or after final disposition of such Proceeding. Such statement or statements shall reasonably evidence the Expenses incurred by such Non-Officer Employee and shall be preceded or accompanied by an undertaking by or on behalf of such person to repay any Expenses so advanced if it shall ultimately be determined that such Non-Officer Employee is not entitled to be indemnified against such Expenses.

(b) In any suit brought by the corporation to recover an advancement of expenses pursuant to the terms of an undertaking, the corporation shall be entitled to recover such expenses upon a final adjudication that the Non-Officer Employee has not met any applicable standard for indemnification set forth in the DGCL.

Section 50. Contractual Nature of Rights.

(a) The provisions of this Article XI shall be deemed to be a contract between the corporation and each Director and Officer entitled to the benefits hereof at any time while this Article XI is in effect, in consideration of such person’s past or current and any future performance of services for the corporation. Neither amendment, repeal or

 

17


modification of any provision of this Article XI nor the adoption of any provision of the Certificate of Incorporation inconsistent with this Article XI shall eliminate or reduce any right conferred by this Article XI in respect of any act or omission occurring, or any cause of action or claim that accrues or arises or any state of facts existing, at the time of or before such amendment, repeal, modification or adoption of an inconsistent provision (even in the case of a proceeding based on such a state of facts that is commenced after such time), and all rights to indemnification and advancement of Expenses granted herein or arising out of any act or omission shall vest at the time of the act or omission in question, regardless of when or if any proceeding with respect to such act or omission is commenced. The rights to indemnification and to advancement of expenses provided by, or granted pursuant to, this Article XI shall continue notwithstanding that the person has ceased to be a director or officer of the corporation and shall inure to the benefit of the estate, heirs, executors, administrators, legatees and distributes of such person.

(b) If a claim for indemnification hereunder by a Director or Officer is not paid in full by the corporation within sixty (60) days after receipt by the corporation of a written claim for indemnification, such Director or Officer may at any time thereafter bring suit against the corporation to recover the unpaid amount of the claim, and if successful in whole or in part, such Director or Officer shall also be entitled to be paid the expenses of prosecuting such claim. The failure of the corporation (including its Board of Directors or any committee thereof, independent legal counsel, or stockholders) to make a determination concerning the permissibility of such indemnification under this Article XI shall not be a defense to an action brought by a Director or Officer for recovery of the unpaid amount of an indemnification claim and shall not create a presumption that such indemnification is not permissible. The burden of proving that a Director or Officer is not entitled to indemnification shall be on the corporation.

(c) In any suit brought by a Director or Officer to enforce a right to indemnification hereunder, it shall be a defense that such Director or Officer has not met any applicable standard for indemnification set forth in the DGCL.

Section 51. Non-Exclusivity of Rights. The rights to indemnification and to advancement of Expenses set forth in this Article XI shall not be exclusive of any other right which any Director, Officer, or Non-Officer Employee may have or hereafter acquire under any statute, provision of the Certificate or these By-laws, agreement, vote of stockholders or Disinterested Directors or otherwise.

Section 52. Insurance. The corporation may maintain insurance, at its expense, to protect itself and any Director, Officer or Non-Officer Employee against any liability of any character asserted against or incurred by the corporation or any such Director, Officer or Non-Officer Employee, or arising out of any such person’s Corporate Status, whether or not the corporation would have the power to indemnify such person against such liability under the DGCL or the provisions of this Article XI.

Section 53. Other Indemnification. The corporation’s obligation, if any, to indemnify or provide advancement of Expenses to any person under this Article XI as a result of such person serving, at the request of the corporation, as a director, partner, trustee, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise shall be reduced by any amount such person may collect as indemnification or advancement of Expenses from such other corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or enterprise (the “Primary Indemnitor”). Any indemnification or advancement of Expenses under this Article XI owed by the corporation as a result of a person serving, at the request of the corporation, as a director, partner, trustee, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise shall only be in excess of, and shall be secondary to, the indemnification or advancement of Expenses available from the applicable Primary Indemnitor(s) and any applicable insurance policies.

ARTICLE XII

NOTICES

Section 54. Notices.

(a) Notice to Stockholders. Written notice to stockholders of stockholder meetings shall be given as provided in Section 7 herein. Without limiting the manner by which notice may otherwise be given effectively to stockholders under any agreement or contract with such stockholder, and except as otherwise required by law, written notice to stockholders for purposes other than stockholder meetings may be sent by US mail or nationally recognized overnight courier, or by facsimile, telegraph or telex or by electronic mail, electronic transmission, or other electronic means.

 

18


(b) Notice to Directors. Any notice required to be given to any director may be given by the method stated in subsection (a), as otherwise provided in these Bylaws, or by overnight delivery service, facsimile, telex or telegram, except that such notice other than one that is delivered personally shall be sent to such address as such director shall have filed in writing with the Secretary, or, in the absence of such filing, to the last known post office address of such director.

(c) Affidavit of Mailing. An affidavit of mailing, executed by a duly authorized and competent employee of the corporation or its transfer agent appointed with respect to the class of stock affected, or other agent, specifying the name and address or the names and addresses of the stockholder or stockholders, or director or directors, to whom any such notice or notices was or were given, and the time and method of giving the same, shall in the absence of fraud, be prima facie evidence of the facts therein contained.

(d) Methods of Notice. It shall not be necessary that the same method of giving notice be employed in respect of all recipients of notice, but one permissible method may be employed in respect of any one or more, and any other permissible method or methods may be employed in respect of any other or others.

(e) Notice to Person with whom Communication Is Unlawful. Whenever notice is required to be given, under any provision of law or of the Certificate of Incorporation or Bylaws of the corporation, to any person with whom communication is unlawful, the giving of such notice to such person shall not be required and there shall be no duty to apply to any governmental authority or agency for a license or permit to give such notice to such person. Any action or meeting that shall be taken or held without notice to any such person with whom communication is unlawful shall have the same force and effect as if such notice had been duly given. In the event that the action taken by the corporation is such as to require the filing of a certificate under any provision of the DGCL, the certificate shall state, if such is the fact and if notice is required, that notice was given to all persons entitled to receive notice except such persons with whom communication is unlawful.

(f) Notice to Stockholders Sharing an Address. Except as otherwise prohibited under DGCL, any notice given under the provisions of DGCL, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws shall be effective if given by a single written notice to stockholders who share an address if consented to by the stockholders at that address to whom such notice is given. Such consent shall have been deemed to have been given if such stockholder fails to object in writing to the corporation within sixty (60) days of having been given notice by the corporation of its intention to send the single notice. Any consent shall be revocable by the stockholder by written notice to the corporation.

ARTICLE XIII

AMENDMENTS

Section 55. Amendments. Subject to the limitations set forth in Section 50(a) of these Bylaws or the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation, the Board of Directors is expressly empowered to adopt, amend or repeal the Bylaws of the corporation. Any adoption, amendment or repeal of the Bylaws of the corporation by the Board of Directors shall require the approval of a majority of the authorized number of directors. The stockholders also shall have power to adopt, amend or repeal the Bylaws of the corporation; provided, however, that, in addition to any vote of the holders of any class or series of stock of the corporation required by law or by the Certificate of Incorporation, such action by stockholders shall require the affirmative vote of the holders of at least sixty-six and two-thirds percent (66-2/3%) of the voting power of all of the then-outstanding shares of the capital stock of the corporation entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class.

 

19


ARTICLE XIV

LOANS TO OFFICERS

Section 56. Loans to Officers. Except as otherwise prohibited by applicable law, the corporation may lend money to, or guarantee any obligation of, or otherwise assist any officer or other employee of the corporation or of its subsidiaries, including any officer or employee who is a director of the corporation or its subsidiaries, whenever, in the judgment of the Board of Directors, such loan, guarantee or assistance may reasonably be expected to benefit the corporation. The loan, guarantee or other assistance may be with or without interest and may be unsecured, or secured in such manner as the Board of Directors shall approve, including, without limitation, a pledge of shares of stock of the corporation. Nothing in these Bylaws shall be deemed to deny, limit or restrict the powers of guaranty or warranty of the corporation at common law or under any statute.

 

20